Qatar is an absolute monarchy and has been ruled by the Al-Thane family  since the mid-1800s. The country gained independence from Britain in 1971 and has become one of the world’s wealthiest states due to its oil and natural gas reserves.

Most important political positions are held by the Al-Thani family or people close to the family. 

The emir has introduced some social and political reforms since he came into power, including the endorsement of women’s right to vote and the extension of freedom of press.

On June 2013, the Emir handed the power to his son Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani in a peaceful transition.

The small Gulf state is also home to the TV station Al-Jazeera, which has become one of the most important broadcasters in the Arab world.

Since the announcement of the forthcoming hosting of the 2022 FIFA World Cup Championship, there has been increased focus on human rights in Qatar.




Total population


Female population


Total 0-14 years


Total 15-64 years


Total 64 years and over (2015 est.)


Life expectancy at birth (women)

79 years

Fertility rate

2 children born/woman

Total literacy rate


Total literacy rate among females


School life expectancy ( primary to tertiary education)

14 years
Female enrolment in higher education