Lebanon, a country with 18 different ethnic and religious sects, went through a bloody civil war from 1975 to 1990. Following the war, a political system based on a certain representation of the major ethnic and religious groups was established and is still used today. 
Syrian military forces were present in the country since 1976, but withdrew completely in 2005 after demonstrations following the assassination of former Prime Minister Rafiq Hariri.
In the summer of 2005 Lebanon held its first legislative elections free of foreign interference since the end of the civil war. In 2011, many Lebanese took to the streets to protest against the sectarian political system.
Also during the year, a civil conflict in neighboring Syria led refugees and defecting soldiers to cross into Lebanon. The Syrian conflict also sparked sectarian fighting in Lebanon, as a series of cross-border kidnappings and shootings between supporters and opponents of the Syrian government led to dozens of deaths. 
Women enjoy many of the same rights as men, but they experience some social and legal discrimination.



Total population


Female population


Total 0-14 years (female)


Total 15-64 years (female)


Total 65 years and over (female)

226,995 (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth (women)

82 years (2013)

Fertility rate

1.5 children born/woman 

Total literacy rate

99.09% (2015)

Total literacy rate among females

91.8% (2015)

School life expectancy ( primary to tertiary education)

14 years (2013)

Female enrolment at higher education*

57% (2011)

*Higher education is the degree after achieving the high-school diploma