Egypt was ruled by President Hosni Mubarak for 30 years from 1981 until 2011. On January 25 2011 the Egyptian people succeeded in ousting the president, and the military assumed power and rule of the country.

Mohamed Morsi of the Muslim Brotherhood was elected president in June 2012. Political support for President Mohamed Morsi declined during the first half of 2013, and protests in the streets began.

Shortly after the military once again intervened, first declaring a 48-hour window for Morsi to respond to popular demands.

Military officers then detained him on July 3 2013, suspending the constitution and installing an interim government led by Adly Mansour, chairman of the Supreme Constitutional Court. 

On 8 June 2014, former chief of the Egyptian armed forces Abdel Fattah el-Sisi was sworn into office as President of Egypt, after an election boycotted by many of his opponents.

A constitution was passed in January 2014 – this was the second following the 2011 uprisings – including principle provisions for gender equality. However, various aspects of Egyptian law and many traditional practices still discriminate against women.




Total population 


Female population 


Total 0-14 years


Total 15-64 years



Total 65 years and over (2015 est.)





Life expectancy at birth (women, 2013): 

74 years

Fertility rate (2012)

2.8 children born/woman 

Total literacy rate (2015 est.)

93.28 %

Total literacy rate among females (2015 est.)

65,4 %

School life expectancy ( primary to tertiary education) 

13 years

Female enrolment at higher education*

46 %

 *Higher education is the degree after achieving the high-school diploma